The Pentagon's reference flights against US Air Force Fs, Fs, and Fs confirmed the superiority of the "Phantom" and led to their introduction into the Air Force, where the F-4 soon became the backbone of the fighter fleet. After its introduction, the "Phantom" has been one of the most successful fighter aircraft designs in US Air Force history for more than two decades.
McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II
Especially in the Vietnam War, she was used for air-to-air and air-ground tasks as well as a reconnaissance and proven in all roles. Even after newer aircraft had gradually taken over their duties, she was during "Desert Storm" and as part of the enforcement of the subsequently established no-fly zone over Iraq as F-4G "Wild Weasel" long successful use.
Until the cessation of production ina total of 5, units were manufactured for 12 nations. Between and with 88 RF-4E and F-4F phantom weapon systems were introduced into the Air Force and equipped 6 squadrons.
These squadrons formed the backbone of the Bundeswehr for air reconnaissance, conventional air attack and flying air defense for quite some time. As a result of this retrofitting, the necessary training requirements for the crews were also defined and made it necessary to set up a suitable training center in the USA. From toreconnaissance, hunting and jabo pilots were retrained from their previous flying weapons systems to the PHANTOM and trained 24 teaching crews.
The training there of the German F-4 crews ended on December 20, and thus concluded another chapter of very successful American as well as German aviation history.
With the purchase of the Phantom II, a two-seat weapon system was introduced as a combat aircraft in the Luftwaffe for the first time. There were also two-seat versions of the predecessors, but these were numerically very small and intended only for training purposes.
For emergencies, these aircraft were only partially operational. In the "Phantom", formed pilot and weapons system officer a team. They shared the task in the cockpit. The pilot was responsible for the mission, controlled and controlled the aircraft.
The weapons system officer operated the on-board computer system for navigation and weapon use, supported the pilot in electronic warfare, air combat and in normal and emergency procedures. The Improved Combat Efficiency ICE program was initiated in late and was originally intended to produce an interim fighter with improved capabilities that would serve with the Luftwaffe pending the introduction of the EFA European Fighter Aircraft into service.
In addition, the APG had the ability to distinguish targets against ground clutter and had the ability to track multiple targets at the same time. The AIM relies on semi-active radar homing for the initial flight to the target, but has autonomous midcourse inertial guidance and a radar transmitter in the nose to provide active terminal radar homing for the final approach to the target. Also to be provided were a new IFF system, a new air data computer, and a new intertial platform.
Later, when JBG 36 switched to the interceptor role and became JG 73, it was decided that the number of aircraft to get the full package of ICE upgrades should be increased to It was decided that the ICE program should proceed in two stages. In the second stage, the interceptor aircraft would get the full package of ICE upgrades.
The first phase of the upgrade began in October The first fleet aircraft retrofits began in March of This program is now complete. It was equipped to launch the AIM but not to guide it. The program to retrofit interceptor squadron F-4Fs began in July of It is still ongoing.
It was originally scheduled to be completed by the end of The rapidly rising costs of the EFA now known as Eurofighter project gave the hard-pressed new unified German government a bout of cold feet. At one time, the German government had considered dropping out of the EFA project altogether, leaving their British, Italian, and Spanish partners to go it alone.
Since Germany was carrying fully a third of the load, her withdrawal would undoubtedly have doomed the Eurofighter project. After much finger-pointing and arm-twisting, the German government was persuaded to continue to participate in the development phase of the project, with the final decision on whether Germany would actually order any production articles being deferred until after From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Wikimedia list article. Archived from the original on Retrieved Double Ugly Books. Phantom Phacts. Retrieved 9 June July 25, Archived from the original on July 25, Encyclopedia of World Military Aircraft. London: AIRtime Publishing, Dorr, Robert J. Fighters of the United States Air Force. Dorr, Robert F.Mtoto yohana hata sasa
Phantoms Forever. London: Osprey Publishing Limited, The Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft. London: Amber Books Ltd, McDonnell Douglas Aircraft since London:Putnam, Air InternationalJulyVolume 47 No 1. Stamford, UK: Key Publishing. Miller, Jay. Air InternationalJulyVolume 29, No.
Bromley, UK: Fine Scroll. Spick, Mike.
Air International. DecemberVolume 29, No. Sweetman, Bill and Bonds, Ray. The Great Book of Modern Warplanes. Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links CS1 maint: archived copy as title Articles with short description All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from July Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons.
The United States has had a long and rich tradition of allowing pilots from allied nations to train on American soil. This bond has been particularly strong between the U. Colonel Gunther Rall was also in the same class; he had kills. Both pilots achieved their records on the Eastern Front. The F program graduated 6, students when it ended in Then, in Aprilthe U. Included was initial qualification training for new pilots and weapon systems officers.
A fighter weapons instructor course was later added for experienced F-4 flight crews. InPresident George Bush Sr. It was the largest German Air Force installation on foreign soil. The excellent flying weather in the southwest afforded the Germans the opportunity to conduct 12, flying hours per year.
McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II non-U.S. operators
The McDonnell F-4 Phantom made its first flight in It was a veritable workhorse in the Vietnam conflict and a veteran of Desert Storm. It is a powerful looking machine akin to the muscle cars of the s. The squadron commander, Lt.Minecraft kits
Mark Buccigrossi, piloted the lead aircraft, ship ; his backseater was Lt.The German Air Force are well known for their dedication and enthusiasm to marking major milestones for their various aircraft types. Ben Montgomery reports from a wet but impressive event.
The Phantom first flew in May and was produced in an overall run of 5, units from that year through to The airframe was lightened by 1. The initial limitations of the airframe were overcome in part by the Peace Rhine modification program of JG71 is one of the earliest fighter units of the reformed German Air Force. Impressed by the aircraft, the German Government ordered an additional of the upgraded and more powerful Mk. These aircraft were to be used to equip new fighter wings, including JG71, which stood up on 6th June at the former RAF Ahlhorn equipped with 50 of the Sabre Mk.
The unit takes its name from Manfred von Richthofen, officially credited as the top German ace of the war with 80 confirmed combat victories.Komatsu parts online
Richthofen held the command of both Jasta 11 and Jagdgeschwader 1 prior to his death in Aprilat which time he was considered to be a German national Hero. JG71 obtained its first F-4F in and formally decommissioned its previous mount — the Lockheed F Starfighter — in September of that year.
When the wing obtained the F-4F, one of its secondary tasks was that of Fighter Ground Attack for which role the F-4F was later qualified on the AGM MaverickJG71 withdrew from this role in leaving it to focus exclusively on the fighter role, a tasking which it maintains today. The Baltic Air Policing missions assist NATO member states in this case, those in the Baltic States to police their airspace when they may not have suitable air defence assets of their own.
The mission is shared between multiple NATO members so far 14 nations have participated and the F-4F has deployed on the mission five times since missions inception during March Now inJG71 holds the mantle for the F-4F in Luftwaffe service, being the last unit to operate the type in a combat capacity.
The wing had previously been able to operate several other EFs, forming a mixed fleet. Wittmund had held a well received Spotters Day earlier in see JG71 Spotters Dayand so anticipation of the final event was understandably at a high. At the same time it was also announced that four special paint schemes would be prepared to see the Phantom off and that the first Luftwaffe Phantom delivered would also be the last to retire — First In, Last Out!
Norm 72 was the first noted out of the paint shop, adorning F-4Fand returning it from the current Norm 90 paint to something more typical of operations in the s when the Luftwaffe first received their Phantoms.
The Norm 72 scheme featured large geometric patterns of green and brown which camouflaged the aircraft well at low level over the German countryside. However, the dark colours and high visibility national markings meant that the aircraft were easily spotted in high level combat. The final operational paint scheme to be unveiled was the Norm 81 example, on aircraft Norm 81 was the result of the Luftwaffe encouraging its pilots to come up with a more effective paint scheme than Norm 72, and was applied when the aircraft were sent through the Peace Rhine upgrade.
Following closely behind the Norm 72 scheme was a freshly painted Norm 90 and thus not noticed by the aviation community as it looks much the same — albeit far cleaner! Norm 90 was the successor to Norm 81, and was applied whilst the aircraft were undergoing the ICE upgrade. Unfortunately the weather forecast was not the only downer for the event as several of the advertised visiting aircraft unable to attend.
Unfortunately the two Turkish F-4E Terminator s cancelled some weeks prior to the event and the Greek F-4E only managed to reach as far as Aviano AB in Italy before presumably being put off by the weather. It was really no surprise that some aircraft were unable to attend as the poor weather covered much of northern Germany and limited all of those aircraft that did attend to a virtually straight in approach with only limited showmanship from the AG51 Panavia Tornado ECR and Marineflieger P-3C Orion.
WTD will continue to fly the Phantom until the end of July, when their aircraft will also be withdrawn. Approximately 5, applications had been received by JG71 prior to the event which, it should be noted, came with no cost to the enthusiast — entry to the event was totally free!
Initial impressions of the organisation were somewhat poor, with an extremely long queue to board the shuttle buses onto the base. This impression was happily quickly proved wrong, as the queue was transported quickly and efficiently onto Wittmund AB at which point the enthusiasts were left within limits!
All the Phantoms on display were positioned outside Hardened Aircraft Shelter HAS sites, with clean and photographically pleasing backgrounds and in some places access ladders were provided for an elevated photograph. As with any photographic event which attract vast numbers of visitors, getting the clean photograph that many wanted was a matter of patience and understanding — qualities which for the most part everyone displayed.
The Luftwaffe however, clearly had decided that providing static photographic opportunities with the F-4F was not enough for the event, and provided two dynamic demonstrations. The second dynamic display was much more of a visual and audible spectacle.
F-4F was parked out on the taxiways, pointing nose on to the crowd.F-4 Phantom II non-U. The Phantom II entered service with the U.
During this time it was the primary interceptor, air superiority fighter and fighter bomber with the U. NavyMarines and Air Force. The Phantom II was exported to 11 other nations, and continues to serve in a military role in some parts of the world. Since the development of the F was plagued with many setbacks, it was expected that the order for the RAAF would not be ready beforeleaving the Australian air force short of a suitable aircraft.
The need to replace their Canberra B. On 22 Junethe contract was signed, and the first of 24 new F-4Es arrived the following September.
They served with Nos. The Australian aircrews praised the choice and the F-4Es were so well received that their popularity threatened the FC order at one point. The first six aircraft were returned in Octoberwith another five returned in November In the United States offered to sell the leased aircraft to Australia.
On balance, the F-4 would need to be supported by eight Boeing KC Stratotankers to achieve the endurance required in Australian service with in-flight refueling, making the whole package uneconomical compared to the FC with its greater range. Also, acquisition of the Phantom would have required disbanding at least one Mirage squadron in order to provide the necessary aircrew No.
List of McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II variants
The FC program was resumed in December One Phantom was lost in an accident during Australian service, off Evans Head, New South Wales during night bombing practice on 16 Junewhile the others went on to follow a long career with the United States Air Force, with 21 examples later modified to F-4G Wild Weasel specifications and used by the 35th and 52nd TFWs.
Royal Australian Air Force. These encounters gave the EAF a measure of the type's effectiveness, especially as a bomber. It also lost the financial support of the other Arab states, and Saudi Arabia cancelled its plans to send Egypt 50 F-5s.Ready player two read online
The U. State Department proposed trading Egypt new military hardware in exchange for military aircraft made in the USSR, including MiGsand the newer MiGs delivered to them by the Soviets prior to their breakdown of relations in To correct the situation, Egypt considered selling some of the F-4s to Turkey and buying extra Fs.
However, assistance from U. By the end of the s, three aircraft had crashed but were replaced with three others. In the new West German Luftwaffe was only 16 years old, having been formed in In this short time, the air force had already passed through two generations of jet combat aircraft, having bought the North American F Sabre and the Lockheed F Starfighter. By the early s, the Luftwaffe had a formidable fighter strength, consisting of two interceptor, two reconnaissance and five bomber wings with FGs, plus four light attack wings with Aeritalia G.
Louis", flew from the U. The aircraft had the capability to develop photos in flight and then drop them using special cartridges. Missions were generally flown at low level and high speed, using the installed APQ radar for navigation. Deliveries were completed in May and the previously employed RFGs were modified to serve in strike or fighter units.
This was reconsidered due to the cost of that version and instead, under the Peace Rhine program, the Luftwaffe purchased the F-4F, which was based on the F-4E. The F-4F had one of the seven fuselage fuel tanks omitted along with the capability to carry AIM-7 Sparrow missiles and bombs.
It was equipped with air combat maneuvering leading edge slats and had a higher thrust to weight ratio, approaching when fuel was low. The first example, serial numberfirst flew on 18 March The first eight were sent to George AFB where crew training was carried out. Inthese trainers were replaced with 10 F-4Es, which stayed in the U. Operationally, the F-4Fs used by JG 71 and JG 74 were employed in the air-to-air role, while those used by JaboG 35 and 36 were used in air-to-air and air-to-ground roles.
The program included 13 months flying the T and Tfor a total of hours for pilots and 85 hours for navigators. Reconnaissance Phantom updates were carried out during several separate programs.First, they tried an F Air Force colonel. Petry was one of the chosen.
And the preferred chase airplane was the McDonnell F-4 Phantom. After a Mach 1. To see that massive thing in flight and be right there in the air with it—you can imagine the exhilaration.
Inthe ambitious founder of McDonnell Aircraft personally delivered to the Pentagon preliminary sketches based on the U. Louis, Missouri factory known as the advanced design cage—a cluster of three desks and a few drafting boards partitioned off with drywall topped with chicken wire—just four engineers worked on the airplane that would propel naval aviation into the future.
ByF-4 program manager David Lewis would be company president. For the air-to-air encounters of tomorrow, gunnery was supplanted by radar-guided missiles. Though not strictly solid state, the airframe was stuffed with state of the art: Westinghouse radar, Raytheon missile fire control, advanced navigation systems, and an analog air-data computer.
A network of onboard sensors extended nose to tail. On the factory floor, integrating 30, electronic parts and 14 miles of wiring gave troubleshooters a fit—and job security.
Cheek-by-jowl components generated clashing sources of electromagnetic energy. Voltage wandered wire to wire, producing crazy glitches: Gauges displayed gallons when the fuel tanks were empty.
Navy aviators of the early s made do with jet aircraft hamstrung by the requirements for carrier landings. The new jet took some getting used to. Getting F-4s to fly and fight required a team effort: a pilot up front and a radar intercept officer RIO behind. The ethos of the solitary hunter-killer, not to mention the ability to single-handedly grease precarious landings on pitching carrier decks, fostered a strong DIY culture among Navy fighter pilots.
Going into combat, the workload was so high that I really relied on the guy behind me. Flying into combat without a shooting iron was another matter. I needed a gun, and I really wished I had one. RF-4Bs flew alone and unarmed deep into unfriendly airspace.Furthermore, the F-4 came in both ground- and carrier-based models and served in the U.
Air Force, Navy and Marines. In the Korean War, the U. Air Force had shot down between six and 10 enemy fighters for every one of its aircraft lost in air-to-air combat. In Vietnam, the ratio was closer to two to one including other aircraft types besides the Phantom. Studies showed that 45 percent of Vietnam-era AIM-7s and 37 percent of AIM-9s failed to either launch or lock on, and after evasive maneuvers, the probability of achieving a kill fell to eight percent and 15 percent for the two types, respectively.
The North Vietnamese MiGs, equipped with both cannons and missiles on the MiGwould outmaneuver the heavier F-4, which for all its speed, was not especially agile. On the other hand, the rules-of-engagement over Vietnam prohibited U. Air-to-air missile technology dramatically improved with later versions of the Sparrow and Sidewinder.
Inan F-4 piloted by Maj. Eventually, the Air Force upgraded all of its F-4Es with wing-slats that significantly improved maneuverability at a slight cost in speed. The Navy, in contrast, perceived the problem as being a lack of Air Combat Maneuvering training, and instituted the Top Gun training program in Navy pilots went on to score a superior kill ratio over Vietnam of 40 victories for seven planes lost in air-to-air combat.
Ground fire shot down Phantoms in all services, as the heavy-lifting Phantom fighters did double duty as ground-attack aircraft. However, the Phantoms proliferated around the world. The F-4 saw extensive use in Israeli service, scoring air-to-air kills against the Egyptian and Syrian air forces, starting in during the War of Attrition. Just two Phantoms managed to scramble in defense, but they shot down seven of the attackers.
These formed the backbone of the Iranian fighter force during the nine-year-long war with Iraq. The Phantom reportedly acquitted itself well versus Iraqi MiGs, and carried out several long-range raids on the Iraqi airfields.
The actual number of air-to-air kills remains disputed. The F, which entered service inis emblematic of fourth-generation fighter aircraft that remain the mainstay of modern air forces today. The F is also deliberately unlike the F How could the F-4 possibly keep up in this new environment?
In the past, high-flying radars had trouble detecting low-flying aircraft because the radar waves bouncing off the ground created a cluttering effect.
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